The Fundamental Duties were inserted in Article 51A of our Constitution in 1976 by 42nd Amendment Act. In the original Constitution in 1950, there was no mention of these duties. It was expected that the citizens would fulfil their duties willingly.
Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of instructions/guidelines to the
governments at the center as well as states. Though these principles are non-justiciable,
they are fundamental in the governance of the country. The idea of Directive Principles of
State Policy has been taken from the Irish Republic. They were incorporated in our
Constitution in order to provide economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in
the hands of a few people.
Directive Principles of State Policy have been grouped into four categories. These are: (1)
the economic and social principles, (2) the Gandhian principles, (3) Principles and Policies
relating to international peace and security and (4) miscellaneous.
The economic and social Principles:
The state shall endeavour to achieve Social and Economic welfare of the people by:
(1) providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women.
(2) reorganizing the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few
(3) securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
(4) securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and
(5) guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation.
(6) making effective provisions for securing the right to work, education and public
assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement.
(7) making provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity
(8) taking steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings
(9) promoting education and economic interests of working sections of the people
especially the SCs and STs.
(10) securing for all the workers reasonable leisure and cultural opportunities.
(11) making efforts to raise the standard of living and public health.
(12) providing early childhood care and education to all children until they complete the
age of 6 years.
The Gandhian Principles
There are certain principles, based on the ideals advocated by Mahatma Gandhi. These
Principles are as follows : –
(1) To organize village Panchayats.
(2) To promote cottage industries in rural areas.
(3) To prohibit intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health.
(4) To preserve and improve the breeds of the cattle and prohibit slaughter of cows,
calves and other milk and drought animals.
Directive Principles of State Policy Relating To International Peace And Security :
India should render active cooperation for world peace and security and for that the state
shall endeavour to : –
(1) promote international peace and security.
(2) maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
(3) foster respect for international laws and treaty obligations.
(4) encourage settlements of international disputes by mutual agreement.
The Directive Principles in this category call upon the state : –
(1) To secure for all Indians a uniform civil code.
(2) To protect historical monuments.
(3) To save environment from pollution and protect wild life.
(4) To make arrangements for disbursement of free legal justice through suitable
The Directive Principles providing free and compulsory education for children
upto the age of 14 years has been included through the 86th Amendment Act, 2002 in the
list of Fundamental Rights under Article 21A.
To empower women, reservation of one third of seats through the 73rd and 74thAmendment
Act, 1991,1992 for them has been made in the Panchayats and Municipalities.
According to National Policy on Education, 1986, the government has launched National
Literacy Mission, and ‘Operation Blackboard’ for the spread of mass literacy at primary
The percentage of literate people at the time of independence was only 14%.
The original Constitution enforced in 1950, did not mention Fundamental Duties of the citizens. It was hoped that citizens would perform their duties willingly. But, 42ndAmendment to the Constitution added a new list of 10 duties in chapter IV under Article 51A of the Constitution.
(i) To abide by the Constitution and respect our National Flag and National Anthem.
(ii) To follow the noble ideals that inspired our national freedom movement.
(iii) To protect the unity and integrity of India.
(iv) To defend the country when the need arises.
(v) To promote harmony and brotherhood among all sections of the people and to respect
the dignity of women.
(vi) To preserve our rich heritage and composite culture.
(vii) To protect and improve our natural environment including forests, rivers, lakes and
(viii) To develop scientific outlook and humanism.
(ix) To protect public property and not to use violence.
(x) To strive for excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.
(xi) Clasue (K) Art 51A Amendment Act 86th 2002.
(K) “a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education of his child or as the case
may be ward between the age of six and fourteen years.